a. While its endeavour to protect an indigenous culture should be recognised, it has put the integrity of a culture at risk.[to protect是定语]
b. The scientific knowledge and economic benefits to be gained by building a sustainable Moon base are huge.[to be gained是定语]
c. Humanitarian relief is meanwhile an instrument to promote peace and security.[to promote peace and security是定语]
a. [定语前置]The growing concern on education has increased the likelihood that people are willing to give up their leisure lives for educational opportunities.
[growing是定语，the concern is growing. ]
b. [定语后置]The line between work and private life is much more blurred, with many workers shopping, checking private emails and reading newspaper online even when working.
[ shopping, checking private emails and reading newspaper online是定语，many workers are shopping, checking private emails and reading newspaper online.]
a. [定语前置]Worthwhile knowledge can be passed on from one generation of workers to another in different forms of education, such as televised teaching and online courses.
[televised是定语，teaching and online courses are televised]
b. [定语后置]Most of the cultural values and ideals promoted by the leading mainstream media are of American origin.
[promoted是定语，cultural values and ideals are promoted by the leading mainstream media.]
c. [过去分词有时插在句子中间，作用接近同位语]International media, controlled by a handful of transnational media corporations, is exporting Western culture worldwide and putting many indigenous cultures at the risk of extinction.
a. There is little room for doubt that tourism is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world. However, its impact on culture remains a source of constant debate.[fast-growing是现在分词构成形容词当定语]
b. Some countries might become addicted to importing goods and overlook the possibility of developing a self-contained economy.[self-contained是过去分词构成形容词当定语]
space-related technologies 与太空有关的科技
long-lasting effects 长远的影响
far-reaching designs 远大的计划
time-consuming jobs 费时的工作
earth-shattering news 震撼世界的新闻
In the south of it lied a restaurant and in the opposite direction was the pier where people can go boating , both of them connected reception with the track. (错误)
这个句子的问题出在both of them.
a. In the south of it lied a restaurant and in the opposite direction was the pier where people can go boating , and both of them connected reception with the track. (正确)
b. In the south of it lied a restaurant and in the opposite direction was the pier where people can go boating; both of them connected reception with the track. (正确)
c. In the south of it lied a restaurant and in the opposite direction was the pier where people can go boating , both of wich connected reception with the track. (正确)
a. I have two brothers, both of them are doctors. (x)
b. I have two brothers, and both of them are doctors. (O)
c. I have two brothers; both of them are doctors. (O)
d. I have two brothers, both of whom (请注意这里用whom是因為前面的of) are doctors. (O)
[限制性定语从句]Taxation is meanwhile an effective tool by which a society can achieve the redistribution of income and close the gap between haves and have-nots.
[这里要强调的是“税收对于调整社会资源分配和缩减贫富差距“重要性，前面部分只是提到了“税收是一个工具“，by which部分就是用来修饰前面内容的，所以by which后面省略了这个句子的就没有意义了。]
[非限制性定语从句]Given those factors, the mobile phone will continue to perform its role as a key social tool, by which one keeps in touch with others much more easily than did the generations before.
[这里的by which后面只是补充说明前面一个句子的意思，前面句子已经说得很清楚“移动电话会继续扮演重要的社交工具的角色“，后面的就是解释这个社交工具是如果扮演重要角色。by which这个从句其实就是类似于同位语从句或者in other words的意思。]
[我提倡的写法]As this technology has become rife, its drawbacks, which can be seen from a social perspective, deserve people's greatest attention.
[which can be seen from a social perspective应该前后加上逗号，即使把这部分拿走，也不会影响句子的意思的]
[我不提倡的写法]As this technology has become rife, its drawbacks, which can be seen from a social perspective deserve people's greatest attention.
a. Another disadvantage of the computer, which makes it unaligned with the philosophy of the contemporary education, is its failure to interact with students.
[which makes it unaligned with the philosophy of the contemporary education就是非限制性定语从句，应该前后加上逗号的]
b. Children, whose biological parents have criminal records, have the potential for personal success, if adopted and reared by well-educated and upper class families.