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联邦雅思今天带大家来看看定语的巧用

  联邦雅思今天带大家来看看定语的巧用

  定语就是修饰语,用来修饰先行词,让句子更加有画面感。定语也有好几种样式,也是可以让我们玩不同的花样,增加文章表达多样性:

  [1]不定式当定语,不定式作定语只能后置,表示未来要做的,多含有应该、必须、可以或能够等情态。

  a. While its endeavour to protect an indigenous culture should be recognised, it has put the integrity of a culture at risk.[to protect是定语]

  b. The scientific knowledge and economic benefits to be gained by building a sustainable Moon base are huge.[to be gained是定语]

  c. Humanitarian relief is meanwhile an instrument to promote peace and security.[to promote peace and security是定语]

  [2]现在分词当定语,不同于不定式表示未来要做的;现在分词当定语是表示定语和所修饰的词是有主谓的逻辑关系的,表示正在进行的动作。而分词短语作定语必须后置。

  a. [定语前置]The growing concern on education has increased the likelihood that people are willing to give up their leisure lives for educational opportunities.

  [growing是定语,the concern is growing. ]

  b. [定语后置]The line between work and private life is much more blurred, with many workers shopping, checking private emails and reading newspaper online even when working.

  [ shopping, checking private emails and reading newspaper online是定语,many workers are shopping, checking private emails and reading newspaper online.]

  [3]过去分词当定语,表示被完成的,与被修饰词是被动关系。

  a. [定语前置]Worthwhile knowledge can be passed on from one generation of workers to another in different forms of education, such as televised teaching and online courses.

  [televised是定语,teaching and online courses are televised]

  b. [定语后置]Most of the cultural values and ideals promoted by the leading mainstream media are of American origin.

  [promoted是定语,cultural values and ideals are promoted by the leading mainstream media.]

  c. [过去分词有时插在句子中间,作用接近同位语]International media, controlled by a handful of transnational media corporations, is exporting Western culture worldwide and putting many indigenous cultures at the risk of extinction.

  [注意这个时候定语前后都要加逗号]

  [4] 现在/过去分词构成合成形容词当定语

  a. There is little room for doubt that tourism is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world. However, its impact on culture remains a source of constant debate.[fast-growing是现在分词构成形容词当定语]

  b. Some countries might become addicted to importing goods and overlook the possibility of developing a self-contained economy.[self-contained是过去分词构成形容词当定语]

  其他常用到的使用还有很多,如:

  open-minded 思想开明的

  space-related technologies 与太空有关的科技

  deep-rooted 深远的

  knowledge-based 以知识为基础的

  long-lasting effects 长远的影响

  far-reaching designs 远大的计划

  time-consuming jobs 费时的工作

  earth-shattering news 震撼世界的新闻

  life-damaging 致命的

  [5] 定语从句

  定语从句是大部分的同学都会使用的,但是!却很多同学没有分清楚限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别,很容易出现两种句型混淆或者出现误用的情况,但是自己却是不知道自己错了,还觉得自己的文章写得通顺好读,以为上6上7没有问题,可是分数出来也是醉了。所以下面提到的几个问题都要好好注意。

  (1)非限制性定语从句和连词连接的句子的区别,我想这个问题每一位英语老师都会解释和提醒过同学们的,但是很多同学还是会忽略掉这个问题。

  请大家看看下面这个句子,这个句子是我的一位学生写的,看你们是否能够看出来问题是什么:

  In the south of it lied a restaurant and in the opposite direction was the pier where people can go boating , both of them connected reception with the track. (错误)

  这个句子的问题出在both of them.

  没有注意到的知识点有:

  a. 两个完整的分句之间如果是逗号的话应该使用连词连接起来;

  b. 两个完整的分句如果不使用连词,那么句子之间应该使用分号“;“;

  c. 如果既使用逗号,也不加连词的话,那么后面半句就应该是非限制性定语从句了。

  所以这个句子有3种写法:

  a. In the south of it lied a restaurant and in the opposite direction was the pier where people can go boating , and both of them connected reception with the track. (正确)

  b. In the south of it lied a restaurant and in the opposite direction was the pier where people can go boating; both of them connected reception with the track. (正确)

  c. In the south of it lied a restaurant and in the opposite direction was the pier where people can go boating , both of wich connected reception with the track. (正确)

  上面的句子有点长,来一个短句子,来让大家更加直观的看出来:

  a. I have two brothers, both of them are doctors. (x)

  b. I have two brothers, and both of them are doctors. (O)

  c. I have two brothers; both of them are doctors. (O)

  d. I have two brothers, both of whom (请注意这里用whom是因為前面的of) are doctors. (O)

  (2)限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别

  在很多同学的概念里面,限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别就是前面加不加逗号,虽然......这是两种定语从句的其中一个区别,但是!还有很多细节大家都要注意一下。

  a. which前面的介词使用。

  不管是限制性定语从句还是非限制性定语从句,which前面都可以和介词搭配使用“介词+which“,但是介词前面是否应该加上逗号,就要看这个定语从句是否重要了。

  看看下面的例子:

  [限制性定语从句]Taxation is meanwhile an effective tool by which a society can achieve the redistribution of income and close the gap between haves and have-nots.

  [这里要强调的是“税收对于调整社会资源分配和缩减贫富差距“重要性,前面部分只是提到了“税收是一个工具“,by which部分就是用来修饰前面内容的,所以by which后面省略了这个句子的就没有意义了。]

  [非限制性定语从句]Given those factors, the mobile phone will continue to perform its role as a key social tool, by which one keeps in touch with others much more easily than did the generations before.

  [这里的by which后面只是补充说明前面一个句子的意思,前面句子已经说得很清楚“移动电话会继续扮演重要的社交工具的角色“,后面的就是解释这个社交工具是如果扮演重要角色。by which这个从句其实就是类似于同位语从句或者in other words的意思。]

  b. 非限制性定语从句标点符号的使用。

  一般来说,插在句子中间的非限制性定语从句,前后都应该加上逗号。虽然在一些文章或者甚至字典里面都会是只有前面有逗号,后面没有,但是作为非大牛的我们,就应该前后都加上逗号,规范我们的写法。这种用法,就跟插入语是有点类似的。

  如:

  [我提倡的写法]As this technology has become rife, its drawbacks, which can be seen from a social perspective, deserve people's greatest attention.

  [which can be seen from a social perspective应该前后加上逗号,即使把这部分拿走,也不会影响句子的意思的]

  [我不提倡的写法]As this technology has become rife, its drawbacks, which can be seen from a social perspective deserve people's greatest attention.

  另外一个例子:

  a. Another disadvantage of the computer, which makes it unaligned with the philosophy of the contemporary education, is its failure to interact with students.

  [which makes it unaligned with the philosophy of the contemporary education就是非限制性定语从句,应该前后加上逗号的]

  b. Children, whose biological parents have criminal records, have the potential for personal success, if adopted and reared by well-educated and upper class families.

  [whose引导的非限制性定语从句]

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